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South African Institution Culture and International Institution Responsibility of a South African Postgraduate Student

South Africa faced racial segregation in Apartheid from 1948 -1994, which dominated politically, socially, and economically. (Singh 2015) South African Institutions have faced many challenges with external factors that include economic, socio-economic, and socio-political, as well as internal factors of institutional culture reported from mid-1980’s-2004 (Koen, 2007)

In 2015/2016, Protests emerged from students that did not see development to the postgraduates challenges with funding following Koen's research, the protest was successful, and the government funding grant was given to the inequalities, this increased the demand of postgraduate education that directly impacted the teacher workload and supervisory demand. (Le Grange)

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation declared Coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) as a global pandemic. (How did the coronavirus outbreak start?, 2021) Covid-19 emphasised the institutional challenges of socio-economic inequality, technology, teacher supervisory support, financial funding, institutional culture and postgraduate quality. The government reducing the financial funding has put South African Institutions under threat.

With the twenty years of the formation of the Global Co-Operation, which includes; the International Consortium for Higher Education, Council of Europe, Civic Responsibility and Democracy (IC), Organisation of American States (OAS), and International Association of Universities (IAU). Global Cooperation focuses on the development and sustainability of Higher Education Institutions.

In this literature review, the theme discussion of the current South African Institutional Culture pre and post-Covid-19, what are the current international collaborations with South African Institutions, and where the opportunities are.